Judge Meek vs. Paul Morphy
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 exd4
A few words may be said here regarding the possible loss of tempi (time-units) arising from exchanges, which we shall frequently notice in the play of Morphy's opponents.
Although the move 3 . . .exd4 is not a developing move, it nevertheless does not represent the loss of a move since White, in order to recapture his pawn, will sooner of later have to play Nxd4. This is not a developing move either, as it involves moving a previously developed piece, the Knight on f3. Should, however, Black after Nxd4, reply with Nxd4 such an exchange would involve a loss in tempo, inasmuch as White develops a hitherto undeveloped piece, with Qxd4.
In surveying the position before this unsound exchange, it may be seen that both parties have developed a piece, White the Knight at d4 and Black the the Knight at c6. After the exchange however, White still has one developed piece, the Queen at d4 while Black on the other hand has no pieces develoed. In such a way the loss of a tempo resulting from this exchange can be drastically demonstrated.
The situation is entirely different, if White, as for instance in the center counter, conrinues after 1.e4 d5, with 2.exd5. It is true that for the moment Black gains an advantage in time with Qxd5, but the Queen is in a rather exposed position on d5 and White can readily and advantageously even up the score with 3.Nc3.
The opening 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 34.d4 is known as the Scottish Game. Inasmuch as d5 is attacked and cannot very well be protected, Blck has no better reply than 3 ...exd4. The prevailing continuation is 4.Nxd4, seemingly giving White more ground and unhampered sway in the centre on account of the pawn on e4. This should not prove a lasting advantage however, if Black consistently aims at the removal of the K pawn, either by means of direct attack or through exchange which after suitable preparations may be accomplished with the move d5. The immediate 4 ...d5 would not be advantageous on account of 5.Bg5.
We would like to use the example of this Scottish opening to demonstrate how much more important and advantageous it is to understand the spirit of an opening than to study variations. After what we have said, it is evident that the best moves for Black are the developing moves attacking White's e4 and d5, since only in this manner is it possible to remove the pressure of the pawn on d4 and to enforce the move d5. On the other hand White's only hope of transforming his apparent advantage into real gain lies in protection of these squares, in order to prevent, or at least retard, the early opening of Black's game by means of the move d4.
It is logical therefore that both sides during the opening fight should endeavor to find moves attacking White's e4 and d5 squares. The following continuation [after 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 34.d4 exd4 4. Nxd4...] would therefore seem the most natural : 4....Nf6 (attacking White's e4 and d5 squares) 5. Nc3 (protecting these squares). 5. ...Bb4 (continuing the attack). 6.Nxc6, (this move in preparation of 7. Bd3, is White's only remaining possibility of protecting e4). 6. ...bxc6 7. Bd3 d5. Black had achieved his purpose, the Pawn on e4 is being exchanged and the games are even. An understanding of the significance of an opening thereafter, as we have seen, leads quite naturally to the tactics recommended by all the text-books, which many a beginner in chess has laboriously and mechanically learned by heart.
This move, sacrificing a Pawn in the interest of the more rapid development, may be made without detriment to White and is characteristic of the Scottish Gambit. As we shall see at once however, White here makes the mistake of playing the Gambit not for the sake of more rapid development, but in the interest of a premature attack on f7, in accordance with the ideas of the time, which were however exploded by Morphy.
This is a mistake for two reasons : In the first place White moves a second time with an already developed piece, thus losing a tempo and giving Black the advantage in development; in the second place White forgets the fact that the opening is a fight for domination in the center and through the above move relinquishes the superiority of the center to his opponent.
The best continuation here is : 5. c3 dxc3 6. Bxf7+ Kxf7 7. Qd5+
Black defends himself with a developing move. If instead he had made the more obvious move of 5...Ne5, simultaneously attacking and covering, he would only be repeating White's error of moving an already developed piece again. As a result White would gain the upper hand by means of the combination which follows in the game. See our comment in regard to move 9 of White.
6. Nxf7 Nxf7
7. Bxf7+ Kxf7
White's combination will probably find the approval of beginners. An experienced player, however, will from the first be suspicious of a combination, in the course of which all the pieces developed by White disappear from the board, only the undeveloped ones remaining. It is evident that no lasting attack can result from such a method.
The consequences of White;s incorrect play are now plainly visible. The only piece developed by White is the Queen which will soon be exposed to attack, giving Black a decisive advantage. If Black in the fifth move, instead of Nh6, had played 5....Ne5, the position of the diagram would have resulted by means of 6. Nxf7 Nxf7 7. Bxf7+ Kxf7 8. Qh5+ g6 9. Qxc5 with the essential difference however that Black would not have a Knight developed on c6 but an undeveloped knight on g8. Black then would surely have to lose a Pawn and would be at a very serious disadvantage.
10. Qb5 Re8
In moving about with the Queen, White is losing some more time. From this juncture Morphy marches to victory in superior style. White should certainly have Castled on move 11.
12. f3 Na5
13. Qd3 dxe4
14. fxe4 Qh4+
15. g3 Rxe4+
16. Kf2 Qe7
The following moves show some nice and not difficult maneuvers which depend upon the continued protection of the e2 square by White's Queen.
18. Qb5 c6
19. Qf1 Bh3
20. Qd1 Rf8
Beginners who, in the heat of the fight only play with pieces that are already engaged in battle and often forget to call on their reserves, can learn a lesson from this move.
21. Nf3 Ke8